Kokand is also one of the historical cities of Uzbekistan located in the eastern part of it and in the southwest of Fergana Valley.
Among the local historians and archeologists the age of the city is supposed to be two thousand at least. Kokand was firstly mentioned in the written data of the X century. There are some suppositions about the etymology of the name of the city. It was mentioned as “Havokand” (“Hokand”) which meant “beautiful”, “pleasing” or “city of winds” in Al-Istahriy and Ibn Havkal’s books. Centuries later it was called as “Hokandi Latif”. In Chinese manuscripts it was noted as “Guyshan”, “Hohan”.
There is scarce information about political history until the XVIII century of Kokand. The most of archives of the Khanate of Kokand was taken after it had been captured by Russian Empire.
In early times Kokand was on the caravan roads which lead to China and India. In XIII century Kokand was totally demolished by the Mongols. Henceforth it was a small settlement of people until the XVIII century. After the foundation of the Khanate of Kokand in 1709, Kokand city was established in 1711 on the site of the Eskikurgan fortress. In 1732 Abdurahimbiy finished the construction of the fortress and made it capital of the khanate. From that time on, the city started to be called as Kokand.
The city possessed 12 gates and a firm wall surrounded it. When Norbuta Biy ruled from 1766 to 1798, the city flourished and it was one of the commercial and handicraft centres of the East. During the reign of Alimkhan (1801-1810) Kokand became politically important. When Umarkhan (1810-1822) and his son, Muhammed Alikhan (1822-1842) were at the head of the khanate Kokand turned into the centre of science, culture, literature and art.
Kokand was subjugated by Nasrullakhan, the Emir of Bukhara in 1842. The Russian forces invaded and integrated it into Turkestan General-Governorship in 1876 and it became an administrative centre of Fergana region of the governorship. On the 27th of April, 1877 the centre of the region was shifted to Yangi Margilan (present-day Fergana city). From that time on Kokand remained as one of the largest cities of the Fergana valley.
Some of the memorials of the past have been preserved in Kokand such as:
- Madrasa Norbota Biy (1798);
- Djome Mosque and Minaret (1814-1817);
- Ensemble Dahmai Shohon (1825);
- Khudayar Khan Palace (1863-1874);
- Mulkabad Mosque (1913);
- Ghishtlik Mosque (1913);
- Madrasa Komol Kozi (1941);
- Khamza Museum (1889-1929).